Background/Aim: Root length is a critical factor for dental pulp regeneration following tooth replantation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of reducing the root length by apicoectomy on the pulp healing process using a model for tooth replantation. Material and Methods: After extraction of the upper first molars (M1) of 3-week-old mice, the roots from the experimental group (EG) were shortened to half to two-thirds of their length before replantation, whereas in the control group (CG) the extracted teeth were immediately repositioned into their alveolar sockets. To determine the effects of root resection on the survival of inherent pulp cells, this study included tooth transplantation with root resection using wild-type (WT) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice. The M1 of GFP transgenic mice were transplanted into the alveolar socket of the M1 of WT mice. The roots of the right M1 were shortened (EG), whereas the left M1 remained untreated (CG). Results: Apoptotic cells in the EG significantly decreased in number compared with the CG at day 3. Cell proliferative activity in the EG was significantly higher than that in the CG in the root pulp during days 3–5, and nestin-positive odontoblast-like cells began to arrange themselves along the pulp-dentin border in the cusp area at day 5 in the EG but not in the CG. At week 2, tertiary dentin had formed throughout the pulp in the EG, whereas the combined tissue of dentin and bone occupied the pulp space in 60% of the CG. Root resection also positively affected the survival of inherent pulp cells to differentiate into odontoblast-like cells as demonstrated by transplantation using GFP transgenic mice. Conclusions: Reducing the root length accelerated pulp regeneration following tooth replantation due to the better environment for revascularization.