Introduction: To compare the root morphology of the maxillary lateral incisors (MLIs) adjacent to an impacted (IMC) versus non-impacted maxillary canine (non-IMC). Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study included cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images derived from 154 subjects (with unilateral/bilateral impacted maxillary canines or without canine impaction). Each MLI was considered as a unit of analysis. Thus, the study group included 122 MLIs adjacent to impacted maxillary canine (IMCG) and the control group included 122 MLIs adjacent to a non-impacted maxillary canine (CG). Groups were matched by age, sex and evaluation side. Root length, root dilaceration angle and root convergence angle were evaluated in both the coronal and sagittal planes. Comparisons between groups were made with Student's t-test and the chi-square test with Bonferroni correction (P < 0.008, P < 0.01, respectively). Results: The root measurements of the MLIs showed some significant differences between the groups. The coronal root length was 0.52 mm shorter but not highly significant (P = 0.032), the coronal root dilaceration angle was 7.51° smaller (P < 0.001), and the coronal root convergence angle was 1.28° greater (P < 0.001) in the IMCG compared to the CG. The orientation of root dilaceration in the MLIs showed significant differences between the groups: it was mostly distopalatal in the GC (87.5%), to a lesser extent in the IMCG (58.9%) and also mesiopalatal in the IMCG (22.3%), (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The root morphology of MLIs adjacent to an IMC showed a tendency of shorter length, smaller root dilaceration and greater root convergence in the coronal section than MLIs adjacent to a non-IMC.