Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease, in which the host immuno-inflammatory response against the dysbiotic subgingival biofilm leads to the breakdown of periodontal tissues. Most of the available treatments seem to be effective in the short-term; nevertheless, permanent periodical controls and patient compliance compromise long-term success. Different strategies have been proposed for the modulation of the host immune response as potential therapeutic tools to take a better care of most susceptible periodontitis patients, such as drug local delivery approaches. Though, maintaining an effective drug concentration for a prolonged period of time has not been achieved yet. In this context, advanced drug delivery strategies using biodegradable nanocarriers have been proposed to avoid toxicity and frequency-related problems of treatment. The versatility of distinct nanocarriers allows the improvement of their loading and release capabilities and could be potentially used for microbiological control, periodontal regeneration, and/or immunomodulation. In the present review, we revise and discuss the most frequent biodegradable nanocarrier strategies proposed for the treatment of periodontitis, including polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), chitosan, and silica-derived nanoparticles, and further suggest novel therapeutic strategies.