Bartonella bacilliformis causes Carrión's disease, an infectious disease present in rural Andean areas of Peru and Ecuador. The disease has an acute and a chronic phase called Oroya fever and Peruvian wart, respectively. Oroya fever is potentially fatal if treated inadequately. Female Lutzomyia verrucarum, a phlebotomine sand fly endemic to South America, is the major vector. B. bacilliformis exhibits high susceptibility levels to a variety of antibacterial agents. B. bacilliformis is difficult to culture. Most endemic areas are remote with fragile health systems and poor communication. Thus, the true burden of the disease is difficult to ascertain.