Coastal residents and fishing families worldwide have long relied upon marine resources for their livelihoods and way of life. Fishing families have a history of relying on family members—especially female members—in related businesses, but also can combine non-fishing-related activities to build their resilience. These women and households are characterized by operating independently and showing personal autonomy for the uptake of both traditional enterprises and adapted technologies. It is also natural for women to play important roles in supporting resilience driving such activities and innovations in work and workways. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, this article presents women’s activities in two coastal communities in Miyagi, Japan, and San Jose, Peru. The research highlights the importance of sociocultural and gendered contexts as a means to better understand women’s role communities. Strengthening women and fishing households’ adaptations to external pressures and challenges in uncertain environmental global change scenarios can be crucial for the resilience of the small-scale fisheries worldwide.