Summary Objectives: To determine the influence of maxillary posterior discrepancy on upper molar vertical position and dentofacial vertical dimensions in individuals with or without skeletal open bite (SOB). Materials and methods: Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms of 139 young adults were examined. The sample was divided into eight groups categorized according to their sagittal and vertical skeletal facial growth pattern and maxillary posterior discrepancy (present or absent). Upper molar vertical position, overbite, lower anterior facial height and facial height ratio were measured. Independent t-test was performed to determine differences between the groups considering maxillary posterior discrepancy. Principal component analysis and MANCOVA test were also used. Results: No statistically significant differences were found comparing the molar vertical position according to maxillary posterior discrepancy for the SOB Class I group or the group with adequate overbite. Significant differences were found in SOB Class II and Class III groups. In addition, an increased molar vertical position was found in the group without posterior discrepancy. Limitations: Some variables closely related with the individual's intrinsic craniofacial development that could influence the evaluated vertical measurements were not considered. Conclusions and implications: Overall maxillary posterior discrepancy does not appear to have a clear impact on upper molar vertical position or facial vertical dimensions. Only the SOB Class III group without posterior discrepancy had a significant increased upper molar vertical position.