Rhamnocercoides menticirrhi Luque and Iannacone, 1991 is redescribed from newly collected material of snakehead kingcroaker Menticirrhus ophicephalus (Jenyns, 1840) from Peru, and as a result of this redescription, the diagnosis of Rhamnocercoides is emended. Rhamnocercus dominguesi n. sp. is described from the Peruvian banded croaker Paralonchurus peruanus (Steindachner, 1875). It differs from congeneric species mainly in the morphology of the male copulatory organ (with distal and proximal portion of the external tube expanded and distal portion of the internal tube uncovered by external tube) and the number of peduncular spines (18-22, arranged in 2 longitudinal rows). Pseudorhamnocercoides n. gen. is proposed for species with two longitudinal rows of peduncular spines with anterior and posterior roots, two longitudinal rows of acicular spines associated with peduncular spines, a medial constriction in the ventral bar and more than six haptoral accessory spines at level of the ventral bar with fan-like distal extremity. Rhamnocercoides stichospinus (Seamster and Monaco, 1956) is transferred to Pseudorhamnocercoides n. gen as Pseudorhamnocercoides stichospinus (Seamster and Monaco, 1956) n. comb (assigned as type species).