COVID-19 associated with cryptococcosis: a scoping review

Alvaro Quincho-Lopez, Nuvith Poma, Juan José Montenegro-Idrogo

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículorevisión exhaustiva


Background: There is growing evidence of fungal infections associated with COVID-19. The development of cryptococcosis in these patients has been infrequently reported. However, it can be life-threatening. Objective: To identify cases of COVID-19 patients who developed cryptococcosis and to compare baseline characteristics and management between those who survived and those who died. Methods: We conducted a scoping review using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase to identify studies that reported patients with COVID-19 and cryptococcosis. No language restriction was applied. Single case reports, case series, and original articles were included. It is important to note that ‘n’ refers to the total number of individuals with the specified variable. Results: A total of 58 studies were included. Among these studies, 51 included individual patient data, detailing information on a total of 65 patients, whereas eight studies reported the proportion of cryptococcosis in COVID-19 patients. One study provided both individual and aggregate case information. From individual patient data, the majority were male (73.9%; n = 48) with a median age of 60 years (range: 53–70). Severe COVID-19 and multiple comorbidities, led by arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, were frequently reported, but few had classic immunosuppression factors. On the other hand, HIV status, either negative or positive, was reported in just over half of the patients (61.5%; n = 40). Most were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (58.5%; n = 31), received mechanical ventilation (MV) (50.0%; n = 26), and developed disseminated cryptococcosis (55.4%; n = 36). Secondary infection, mainly bacterial, was reported in 19 patients (29.2%). Mortality was 47.7% (n = 31). Of the studies that reported the proportion of cryptococcosis in COVID-19 cases, the majority were descriptive studies published as conference abstracts. Conclusion: Cryptococcosis in COVID-19 patients has been reported more frequently. However, it is still not as common as other fungal infections associated with COVID-19. Few patients have some classic immunosuppression factors. The factors associated with mortality were male sex, age, ICU admission, MV, secondary infections, and lymphopenia.

Idioma originalInglés
PublicaciónTherapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
EstadoPublicada - 1 ene. 2024


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