Background: High anthropometric indexes before sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are associated with an increased risk of erosive esophagitis (EE) in bariatric surgery candidates. Reasons that explain how these indexes influence the development of esophageal pathology after surgery remains unclear. Objectives: To assess the association between the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and body fat percentage (BFP) with the development of EE in adults with obesity three months after SG. Setting: Clínica Avendaño, Lima, Peru. Methods: Retrospective cohort using a database including adults with obesity who underwent SG during 2017-2020. All the patients included had an endoscopy before and after the surgery. Sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared according to BMI, WC and BFP, as well as by the development of de novo esophagitis. The association was evaluated by crude and adjusted generalized linear models with the log-Poisson family. Results: From a total of 106 patients, 23 (21.7%) developed EE. We did not find significant differences in sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics between patients with de novo EE compared to those who did not develop EE. After adjustment, BMI (aRR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.18-1.40), BFP (aRR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.15-1.19) and WC (aRR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.69-1.16) were not associated with the development of EE three months post SG. Conclusions: We found no association between preoperative anthropometric indexes and the development of de novo EE; therefore, morbid obesity should not be a criterion to exclude the patients to undergo SG as primary surgery because of the risk of developing EE.