Unveiling the Link Between Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Cognitive Dysfunction in the Almenara Lupus Cohort

Yelitza Velarde-Mejía, Rocío Gamboa-Cárdenas, Francisco Zevallos, Mariela Medina, Zoila Rodriguez-Bellido, Cesar Pastor-Asurza, Graciela S. Alarcón, Manuel F. Ugarte-Gil

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Cognitive dysfunction is a prevalent manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). There is evidence for the role of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies on its etiopathogenesis. Our objective was to identify the association between aPL antibodies and cognitive dysfunction in SLE patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 135 patients evaluated from March 2015 to October 2017 at one center. Cognitive deficit was measured using the NEUROPSI test. Disease activity and damage were ascertained using the SLEDAI-2K (SLE Disease Activity Index 2000) and the SDI (Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index), respectively; aPL antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The association between cognitive dysfunction and aPL antibodies was evaluated using univariable and multivariable linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, socioeconomic status, disease duration, SLEDAI-2K, SDI, mean current dose of prednisone, time of exposure to glucocorticoids, and drug use (immunosuppressants, hydroxychloroquine, aspirin, and warfarin). Results: One hundred thirty-one patients (97.1%) were women; their mean (SD) age was 46.6 (12.5) years; 59 patients (43.7%) had positivity for at least 1 aPL antibody. IgM anticardiolipin (aCL) was positive in 24.5%, IgG in 13.5%, IgM aβ2GP1 in 16.8%, IgG anti-β2 glycoprotein in 24.6%, and the lupus anticoagulant in 5.3%. Ninety patients (66.7%) had some cognitive dysfunction. In the univariable analysis, a significant correlation between the NEUROPSI score and IgM aCL antibodies was found (B = −20.87 [SE, 3.2]; p < 0.001), which remained significant in the multivariable model (B = −13.89 [SE, 3.14]; p < 0.001). Conclusions: IgM aCL antibodies are associated with cognitive dysfunction in patients with SLE. Larger and longitudinal studies are needed to assess the impact of these findings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-45
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of clinical rheumatology : practical reports on rheumatic & musculoskeletal diseases
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2024


Dive into the research topics of 'Unveiling the Link Between Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Cognitive Dysfunction in the Almenara Lupus Cohort'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this