Transferable mechanisms of quinolone resistance from 1998 onward

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While the description of resistance to quinolones is almost as old as these antimicrobial agents themselves, transferable mechanisms of quinolone resistance (TMQR) remained absent from the scenario for more than 36 years, appearing first as sporadic events and afterward as epidemics. In 1998, the first TMQR was soundly described, that is, QnrA. The presence of QnrA was almost anecdotal for years, but in the middle of the first decade of the 21st century, there was an explo-sion of TMQR descriptions, which definitively changed the epidemiology of quinolone resistance. Currently, 3 different clinically relevant mechanisms of quinolone resistance are encoded within mobile elements: (i) target protection, which is mediated by 7 different families of Qnr (QnrA, QnrB, QnrC, QnrD, QnrE, QnrS, and QnrVC), which overall account for more than 100 recognized alleles; (ii) antibiotic efflux, which is mediated by 2 main transferable efflux pumps (QepA and OqxAB), which together account for more than 30 alleles, and a series of other efflux pumps (e.g., QacBIII), which at present have been sporadically described; and (iii) antibiotic modification, which is mediated by the enzymes AAC(6')Ib-cr, from which different alleles have been claimed, as well as CrpP, a newly described phosphorylase.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere00007-19
JournalClinical Microbiology Reviews
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2019


  • Aac(6)Ib-cr
  • Antibiotic resistance
  • CrpP
  • OqxAB
  • PMQR
  • Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance
  • QepA
  • Qnr
  • Quinolones
  • TMQR


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