The role of 5-lipoxygenase in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 and its therapeutic implications

Nohora Cristina Ayola-Serrano, Namrata Roy, Zareena Fathah, Mohammed Moustapha Anwar, Bivek Singh, Nour Ammar, Ranjit Sah, Areej Elba, Rawan Sobhi Utt, Samuel Pecho-Silva, Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales, Kuldeep Dhama, Sadeq Quraishi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes cytokine release syndrome (CRS), leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute kidney and cardiac injury, liver dysfunction, and multiorgan failure. Although several studies have discussed the role of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) in viral infections, such as influenzae and SARS, it remains unexplored in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. 5-LOX acts on free arachidonic acid (AA) to form proinflammatory leukotrienes (LTs). Of note, numerous cells involved with COVID-19 (e.g., inflammatory and smooth muscle cells, platelets, and vascular endothelium) widely express leukotriene receptors. Moreover, 5-LOX metabolites induce the release of cytokines (e.g., tumour necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin-1α [IL-1α], and interleukin-1β [IL-1β]) and express tissue factor on cell membranes and activate plasmin. Since macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils can express lipoxygenases, activation of 5-LOX and the subsequent release of LTs may contribute to the severity of COVID-19. This review sheds light on the potential implications of 5-LOX in SARS-CoV-2-mediated infection and the anticipated therapeutic role of 5-LOX inhibitors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)877-889
Number of pages13
JournalInflammation Research
Volume70
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • 5-lipoxygeSnase
  • 5-LOX inhibitors
  • COVID-19
  • CRS
  • SARS-CoV-2

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