The Rise and Rise of Lupus

Luis A. González, Manuel F. Ugarte-Gil, Guillermo J. Pons-Estel, Graciela S. Alarcón

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Despite how difficult the early diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is, which is mainly due to the heterogeneity and non-specificity of its clinical manifestations, SLE is currently being diagnosed more frequently than in past decades. In fact, there has been an increase in the incidence and prevalence of SLE over the last four decades; this can be explained by a number of reasons including a better knowledge of the pathogenesis of the disease which allows its earlier diagnosis, the rising ethnic and racial diversity of the world population, the use of the 2019 EULAR/ACR criteria that allows classifying patients earlier, and improvements in survival over the last decades, which results in an increase in the prevalent cases of SLE. In this article, we will also review the genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors, that are reported to increase the risk of developing SLE and how preventive strategies through a clinical care pathway may prevent or delay the development of SLE and improve these patients’ outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)713-726
Number of pages14
Issue number6
StatePublished - May 2023


  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • incidence
  • preclinical lupus
  • prevention
  • risk factors


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