The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and CV Risk Factors: The CRONICAS Cohort Study of Peruvian Adults

Renato Quispe, Catherine P. Benziger, Juan Carlos Bazo-Alvarez, Laura D. Howe, William Checkley, Robert H. Gilman, Liam Smeeth, Antonio Bernabé-Ortiz, J. Jaime Miranda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Background Variations in the distribution of cardiovascular disease and risk factors by socioeconomic status (SES) have been described in affluent societies, yet a better understanding of these patterns is needed for most low- and middle-income countries. Objective This study sought to describe the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and SES using monthly family income, educational attainment, and assets index, in 4 Peruvian sites. Methods Baseline data from an age- and sex-stratified random sample of participants, ages ≥35 years, from 4 Peruvian sites (CRONICAS Cohort Study, 2010) were used. The SES indicators considered were monthly family income (n = 3,220), educational attainment (n = 3,598), and assets index (n = 3,601). Behavioral risk factors included current tobacco use, alcohol drinking, physical activity, daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and no control of salt intake. Cardiometabolic risk factors included obesity, elevated waist circumference, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels. Results In the overall population, 41.6% reported a monthly family income <US$198, and 45.6% had none or primary education. Important differences were noted between the socioeconomic indicators: for example, higher income and higher scores on an asset index were associated with greater risk of obesity, whereas higher levels of education were associated with lower risk of obesity. In contrast, higher SES according to all 3 indicators was associated with higher levels of triglycerides. Conclusions The association between SES and cardiometabolic risk factors varies depending on the SES indicator used. These results highlight the need to contextualize risk factors by socioeconomic groups in Latin American settings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-130.e2
JournalGlobal Heart
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2016
Externally publishedYes


Dive into the research topics of 'The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and CV Risk Factors: The CRONICAS Cohort Study of Peruvian Adults'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this