Sodium and salt consumption in latin america and the caribbean: A systematic-review and meta-analysis of population-based studies and surveys

Rodrigo M. Carrillo-Larco, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations

Abstract

Sodium/salt consumption is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Although global targets to reduce salt intake have been established, current levels and trends of sodium consumption in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are unknown. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies in which sodium consumption was analyzed based on urine samples (24 hour samples or otherwise). The search was conducted in Medline, Embase, Global Health, Scopus and LILACS. From 2350 results, 53 were studied in detail, of which 15 reports were included, providing evidence for 18 studies. Most studies were from Brazil (7/18) and six collected 24 hour urine samples. In the random effects meta-analysis, 12 studies (29,875 people) were analyzed since 2010. The pooled mean 24 hour estimated sodium consumption was 4.13 g/day (10.49 g/day of salt). When only national surveys were analyzed, the pooled mean was 3.43 g/day (8.71 g/day of salt); when only community studies were analyzed the pooled mean was 4.39 g/day (11.15 g/day of salt). Studies had low risk of bias. The estimated 24 hour sodium consumption is more than twice the World Health Organization recommendations since 2010. Regional organizations and governments should strengthen policies and interventions to measure and reduce sodium consumption in LAC.

Original languageEnglish
Article number556
JournalNutrients
Volume12
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2020

Keywords

  • Dietary
  • Global health
  • Sodium
  • Sodium chloride

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