Senescent CD4+ CD28- T Lymphocytes as a Potential Driver of Th17/Treg Imbalance and Alveolar Bone Resorption during Periodontitis

Luis González-Osuna, Alfredo Sierra-Cristancho, Emilio A. Cafferata, Samanta Melgar-Rodríguez, Carolina Rojas, Paola Carvajal, Cristian Cortez, Rolando Vernal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Senescent cells express a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) with a proinflammatory bias, which contributes to the chronicity of inflammation. During chronic inflammatory diseases, infiltrating CD4+ T lymphocytes can undergo cellular senescence and arrest the surface expression of CD28, have a response biased towards T-helper type-17 (Th17) of immunity, and show a remarkable ability to induce osteoclastogenesis. As a cellular counterpart, T regulatory lymphocytes (Tregs) can also undergo cellular senescence, and CD28- Tregs are able to express an SASP secretome, thus severely altering their immunosuppressive capacities. During periodontitis, the persistent microbial challenge and chronic inflammation favor the induction of cellular senescence. Therefore, senescence of Th17 and Treg lymphocytes could contribute to Th17/Treg imbalance and favor the tooth-supporting alveolar bone loss characteristic of the disease. In the present review, we describe the concept of cellular senescence; particularly, the one produced during chronic inflammation and persistent microbial antigen challenge. In addition, we detail the different markers used to identify senescent cells, proposing those specific to senescent T lymphocytes that can be used for periodontal research purposes. Finally, we discuss the existing literature that allows us to suggest the potential pathogenic role of senescent CD4+ CD28- T lymphocytes in periodontitis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2543
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume23
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2022

Keywords

  • Alveolar bone loss
  • CD28
  • Cell senescence
  • Periodontitis
  • T-lymphocytes
  • Th17 lymphocytes
  • Tregs

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