Satisfaction towards virtual courses: Development and validation of a short measure in COVID-19 times

José Ventura-León, Tomás Caycho-Rodríguez, Jency Mamani-Poma, Lucerito Rodriguez-Dominguez, Luciana Cabrera-Toledo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This study was aimed to develop and validate a short scale to measure satisfaction with virtual courses (SVC–S) in a sample of higher education students during the covid-19 pandemic; specifically, in the year 2021. A total of 3080 students between 16 and 56 years of age participated (Mean = 25.71; SD = 8.83); 1836 were female (59.60 %) and 1244 male (40.40 %). The participants were students from three cities in Peru (77.90% from Lima, 12.70% from Trujillo and 9.42% from Cajamarca). Qualitative and quantitative procedures were followed for the construction of the SVC-S. Item response theory (IRT) considering Samejima's two-parameter Graded Response Model (GRM) (2PL) and the test-item information function was used to establish accuracy/reliability, and the relationship of the SVC-S with a similar measure was examined to demonstrate convergence and discrimination. The results reveal that the data present an optimal fit (M2 (2) = 3.62; RMSEA = .016; CFI = 1.00). Reliability is excellent (rxx = .93) and the information function suggests that the instrument is more accurate at low levels of the latent trait. Regarding convergence with an academic satisfaction scale, the SVC-S showed an appropriate correlation (r = .70) whose average variance extracted (AVE) reported good discrimination of the constructs; despite being conceptually similar. SVC-S is concluded to be a valid and reliable measure that can be used in future studies in higher education.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere10311
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Item response theory
  • Satisfaction
  • University students
  • Validation
  • Virtual courses


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