Regional disparities of prostate cancer mortality in Ecuador: an examination of trends and correlates from 2004 to 2019

Katherine Simbaña-Rivera, J. Smith Torres-Roman, Mabel R. Challapa-Mamani, Jhon Guerrero, Gabriel De la Cruz-Ku, Jorge Ybaseta-Medina, José F. Martinez-Herrera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Prostate cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in Ecuadorian men. However, there is a lack of information regarding the evolution of prostate cancer mortality rates in Ecuador and its regions in the last few decades. Objective: The aim of this study was to report prostate cancer mortality rates in Ecuador and its geographical areas and observe the evolution of these rates between 2004 and 2019. Methods: An observational ecological study was conducted, analysing data for prostate cancer deaths from 2004 to 2019 in Ecuador. Age standardized mortality rates (ASMR) were calculated per 100,000 men using the world standard population with the direct method proposed by SEGI. Joinpoint regression analysis was performed to examine mortality trends. We used a Cluster Map to explore relationships among regions between 2015 and 2019. Results: Ecuador reported 13,419 deaths by prostate cancer between 2004 and 2019, with the Coastal region accounting for 49.8% of the total deaths. The mean age at death was 79 years (± 10 years), 91.7% were elderly (more than 65 years old) and had primary education (53%). Deaths by prostate cancer were more frequently reported among mestizos (81.4%). There were no significant variations in these percentages in Ecuador and its regions during the study period. Carchi province had the highest mortality rate in 2005 and 2019 (> 13 deaths per 100,000). Heterogeneity in the evolution of mortality rates was reported among the provinces of Ecuador. Azuay decreased in the first few years, and then increased from 2010 to 2019, whereas Guayas and Pichincha decreased throughout the whole period. Conclusion: Although prostate cancer mortality rates in Ecuador have remained stable over the past few decades, there are significant disparities among the different regions. These findings suggest the need for the development of national and provincial registration measures, integrated healthcare actions, and targeted interventions to reduce the burden of prostate cancer in the Ecuadorian population.

Original languageEnglish
Article number992
JournalBMC Public Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • Ecuador
  • Mortality
  • Prostatic neoplasms
  • Spatial analysis
  • Trends


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