Preventing the Next Pandemic: Is Live Vaccine Efficacious against Monkeypox, or Is There a Need for Killed Virus and mRNA Vaccines?

Abdelaziz Abdelaal, Abdullah Reda, Basant Ismail Lashin, Basant E. Katamesh, Aml M. Brakat, Balqees Mahmoud AL-Manaseer, Sayanika Kaur, Ankush Asija, Nimesh K. Patel, Soney Basnyat, Ali A. Rabaan, Saad Alhumaid, Hawra Albayat, Mohammed Aljeldah, Basim R.Al Shammari, Amal H. Al-Najjar, Ahmed K. Al-Jassem, Sultan T. AlShurbaji, Fatimah S. Alshahrani, Ahlam AlynbiawiZainab H. Alfaraj, Duaa H. Alfaraj, Ahmed H. Aldawood, Yub Raj Sedhai, Victoria Mumbo, Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales, Ranjit Sah

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


(1) Background: The monkeypox virus (MPV) is a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Poxviridae family, Chordopoxvirinae subfamily, and Orthopoxvirus genus. It was called monkeypox because it was first discovered in monkeys, in a Danish laboratory, in 1958. However, the actual reservoir for MPV is still unknown. (2) Methods and Results: We have reviewed the existing literature on the options for Monkeypox virus. There are three available vaccines for orthopoxviruses—ACAM2000, JYNNEOS, and LC16—with the first being a replicating vaccine and the latter being non- or minimally replicating. (3) Conclusions: Smallpox vaccinations previously provided coincidental immunity to MPV. ACAM2000 (a live-attenuated replicating vaccine) and JYNNEOS (a live-attenuated, nonreplicating vaccine) are two US FDA-approved vaccines that can prevent monkeypox. However, ACAM2000 may cause serious side effects, including cardiac problems, whereas JYNNEOS is associated with fewer complications. The recent outbreaks across the globe have once again highlighted the need for constant monitoring and the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic modalities. Based on available data, there is still a need to develop an effective and safe new generation of vaccines specific for monkeypox that are killed or developed into a mRNA vaccine before monkeypox is declared a pandemic.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1419
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2022


  • monkeypox
  • outbreak
  • vaccine


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