Prevalence of diabetic foot at risk of ulcer development and its components stratification according to the international working group on the diabetic foot (IWGDF): A systematic review with metanalysis

Tania Maldonado-Valer, Luis F. Pareja-Mujica, Rodrigo Corcuera-Ciudad, Fernando Andres Terry-Escalante, Mylenka Jennifer Chevarría-Arriaga, Tery Vasquez-Hassinger, Marlon Yovera-Aldana

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Aims To determine the overall prevalence of diabetic foot at risk according to the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot stratification. Materials and methods We searched PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase. We included cross-sectional studies or cohorts from 1999 to March 2022. We performed a meta-analysis of proportions using a random-effects model. We assessed heterogeneity through subgroup analysis by continent and other characteristics. Results We included 36 studies with a total population of 11,850 people from 23 countries. The estimated overall prevalence of diabetic foot at risk was 53.2% (95% CI: 45.1–61.3), I2 = 98.7%, p < 0.001. In the analysis by subgroups, South and Central America had the highest prevalence and Africa the lowest. The factors explaining the heterogeneity were the presence of chronic kidney disease, diagnostic method for peripheral arterial disease, and quality. The estimates presented very low certainty of evidence. Conclusions The overall prevalence of diabetic foot at risk is high. The high heterogeneity between continents can be explained by methodological aspects and the type of population. However, using the same classification is necessary for standardization of the way of measuring the components, as well as better designed general population-based studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0284054
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume18
Issue number11 November
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2023

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