Nonpharmaceutical interventions reduce the incidence and mortality of COVID-19: A study based on the survey from the International COVID-19 Research Network (ICRN)

Seung Hyun Park, Sung Hwi Hong, Kwanghyun Kim, Seung Won Lee, Dong Keon Yon, Sun Jae Jung, Ziad Abdeen, Ramy Abou Ghayda, Mohamed Lemine Cheikh Brahim Ahmed, Abdulwahed Al Serouri, Waleed Al-Herz, Humaid O. Al-Shamsi, Sheeza Ali, Kosar Ali, Oidov Baatarkhuu, Henning Bay Nielsen, Enrico Bernini-Carri, Anastasiia Bondarenko, Ayun Cassell, Akway ChamMelvin L.K. Chua, Sufia Dadabhai, Tchin Darre, Hayk Davtyan, Elena Dragioti, Barbora East, Robert Jeffrey Edwards, Martina Ferioli, Tsvetoslav Georgiev, Lilian A. Ghandour, Harapan Harapan, Po Ren Hsueh, Saad I. Mallah, Aamer Ikram, Shigeru Inoue, Louis Jacob, Slobodan M. Janković, Umesh Jayarajah, Milos Jesenak, Pramath Kakodkar, Nathan Kapata, Yohannes Kebede, Yousef Khader, Meron Kifle, David Koh, Višnja Kokić Maleš, Katarzyna Kotfis, Ai Koyanagi, James Paul Kretchy, Sulaiman Lakoh, Jinhee Lee, Jun Young Lee, Maria da Luz Lima Mendonça, Lowell Ling, Jorge Llibre-Guerra, Masaki Machida, Richard Makurumidze, Ziad A. Memish, Ivan Mendoza, Sergey Moiseev, Thomas Nadasdy, Chen Nahshon, Silvio A. Ñamendys-Silva, Blaise Nguendo Yongsi, Amalea Dulcene Nicolasora, Zhamilya Nugmanova, Hans Oh, Atte Oksanen, Oluwatomi Owopetu, Zeynep Ozge Ozguler, Konstantinos Parperis, Gonzalo Emanuel Perez, Krit Pongpirul, Marius Rademaker, Nemanja Radojevic, Anna Roca, Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales, Enver Roshi, Khwaja Mir Islam Saeed, Ranjit Sah, Boris Sakakushev, Dina E. Sallam, Brijesh Sathian, Patrick Schober, P. Shaik Syed Ali, Zoran Simonović, Tanu Singhal, Natia Skhvitaridze, Marco Solmi, Kannan Subbaram, Kalthoum Tizaoui, John Thato Tlhakanelo, Julio Torales, Junior Smith Torres-Roman, Dimitrios Tsartsalis, Jadamba Tsolmon, Duarte Nuno Vieira, Sandro G.Viveiros Rosa, Guy Wanghi, Uwe Wollina, Ren He Xu, Lin Yang, Kashif Zia, Muharem Zildzic, Jae Il Shin, Lee Smith

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5 Scopus citations


The recently emerged novel coronavirus, “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2),” caused a highly contagious disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has severely damaged the world's most developed countries and has turned into a major threat for low- and middle-income countries. Since its emergence in late 2019, medical interventions have been substantial, and most countries relied on public health measures collectively known as nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). We aimed to centralize the accumulative knowledge of NPIs against COVID-19 for each country under one worldwide consortium. International COVID-19 Research Network collaborators developed a cross-sectional online survey to assess the implications of NPIs and sanitary supply on the incidence and mortality of COVID-19. The survey was conducted between January 1 and February 1, 2021, and participants from 92 countries/territories completed it. The association between NPIs, sanitation supplies, and incidence and mortality were examined by multivariate regression, with the log-transformed value of population as an offset value. The majority of countries/territories applied several preventive strategies, including social distancing (100.0%), quarantine (100.0%), isolation (98.9%), and school closure (97.8%). Individual-level preventive measures such as personal hygiene (100.0%) and wearing facial masks (94.6% at hospitals; 93.5% at mass transportation; 91.3% in mass gathering facilities) were also frequently applied. Quarantine at a designated place was negatively associated with incidence and mortality compared to home quarantine. Isolation at a designated place was also associated with reduced mortality compared to home isolation. Recommendations to use sanitizer for personal hygiene reduced incidence compared to the recommendation to use soap. Deprivation of masks was associated with increased incidence. Higher incidence and mortality were found in countries/territories with higher economic levels. Mask deprivation was pervasive regardless of economic level. NPIs against COVID-19 such as using sanitizer, quarantine, and isolation can decrease the incidence and mortality of COVID-19.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere28354
JournalJournal of Medical Virology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • COVID-19
  • isolation
  • mask
  • nonpharmacologic interventions
  • quarantine
  • sanitizer


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