Network analysis of pandemic fatigue symptoms in samples from five South American countries

Tomás Caycho-Rodríguez, Julio Torales, José Ventura-León, Iván Barrios, Marcela Waisman-Campos, Alexandra Terrazas-Landivar, Laura Viola, Lindsey W. Vilca, Agueda Muñoz-del-Carpio-Toia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Pandemic fatigue generates low motivation or the ability to comply with protective behaviors to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. Aims: This study aimed to analyze the symptoms of pandemic fatigue through network analysis in individuals from five South American countries. Method: A total of 1,444 individuals from Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay participated and were evaluated using the Pandemic Fatigue Scale. The networks were estimated using the ggmModSelect estimation method and a polychoric correlation matrix was used. Stability assessment of the five networks was performed using the nonparametric resampling method based on the case bootstrap type. For the estimation of network centrality, a metric based on node strength was used, whereas network comparison was performed using a permutation-based approach. Results: The results showed that the relationships between pandemic fatigue symptoms were strongest in the demotivation dimension. Variability in the centrality of pandemic fatigue symptoms was observed among participating countries. Finally, symptom networks were invariant and almost identical across participating countries. Conclusions: This study is the first to provide information on how pandemic fatigue symptoms were related during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)601-614
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2024


  • COVID-19
  • South America
  • networks
  • pandemic fatigue


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