Context: Intracranial tuberculomas are rare yet lethal forms of tuberculosis. Diagnosis is often difficult because of its nonspecific symptoms and radiological findings. Aim: This study aims to perform a literature review of multiple tuberculomas to improve disease recognition and management in immunocompetent patients along with presenting a case report on the topic. Data sources: Scopus, LILACS, Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE. Study selection: Case reports and case series up to December 2018 in English, Spanish, and Portuguese focusing on intracranial tuberculomas in adult and pediatric immunocompetent patients. Data on presentation, diagnostic workup, and treatment was analyzed. Data extraction: Cochrane Collaboration/Cochrane Handbook and PRISMA guidelines. Results: Twenty reports involving 21 patients were included. Most patients were male (57.14%). The average age at diagnosis was 26.9 ± 14.9 years. Headache was the most common presenting symptom (52.4%; 11/21), followed by motor weakness (47.6%; 10/21) and vomiting (23.8%; 5/21). MRI was the most used image technique (17/21). Most lesions occurring in the cerebral hemispheres (16/21); we found five or more lesions in 66.6% (14/21) of the patients. The majority treated with anti-tuberculous drugs resulted in a favorable outcome. Conclusions: Immunocompetent patients living in TB endemic areas whose clinical evaluation and neuroimaging findings are compatible with tuberculoma should undergo anti-tubercular treatment despite a lack of bacteriological confirmation.
- Central nervous system
- Immunocompetence (source: MeSH)