Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance and epidemiological relationships were investigated for five multiresistant strains of Salmonella typhimurium isolated from fish in India. Four strains showed resistance to nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, co-trimoxazole, gentamicin and β-lactam antibiotics. The remaining strain was susceptible to all β-lactam antibiotics tested and to co-trimoxazole but resistant to the other antibiotics tested. Epidemiological analysis performed by REP-PCR showed that the five isolates belonged to the same clone. Resistance to nalidixic acid was related to a single mutation in the gyrA gene. Chloramphenicol resistance was related to the production of chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase. An OXA-1 β-lactamase, located in an integron, was responsible for resistance to ampicillin. These results indicate the health hazard posed by the fact that S. typhimurium may acquire or develop several mechanisms of resistance to a variety of antibiotics, including quinolones, and can thus cause disease in humans which may be difficult to treat.