Measuring Socioeconomic Inequalities in HIV Testing During Antenatal Care: A Peruvian National Survey

Akram Hernández-Vásquez, Rodrigo Vargas-Fernández

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Although several Latin American countries have 70% antenatal care coverage, the proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing of Peruvian pregnant women and the socioeconomic inequalities of this preventive measure are unknown. This study aimed to determine socioeconomic inequalities and quantify the contribution of contextual and compositional factors on HIV testing during prenatal care in Peru. A cross-sectional study of the 2021 Demographic and Family Health Survey data was conducted. The outcome variable was HIV testing of pregnant women during prenatal care. An analysis of inequalities was performed including the determination of concentration curves and a decomposition analysis of concentration indices. Of a total of 17521 women aged 15 to 49 years, 91.4% had been tested for HIV during prenatal care. The concentration curves showed that prenatal HIV testing was concentrated among richer women, while the decomposition analysis determined that the main contributors to inequality were having a higher education, residing in an urban area, and in the highlands, belonging to the wealthy quintile, and being exposed to television and newspapers. Strategies focused on improving access, promotion and restructuring of prevention of mother-to-child transmission measures should be prioritized.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)117-126
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Community Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • HIV testing
  • Health care disparities
  • Peru
  • Pregnant women
  • Socioeconomic factors


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