Mapping the diverse and inclusive future of parkinson’s disease genetics and its widespread impact

Inas Elsayed, Alejandro Martinez-Carrasco, Mario Cornejo-Olivas, Sara Bandres-Ciga

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Over the last decades, genetics has been the engine that has pushed us along on our voyage to understand the etiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although a large number of risk loci and causative mutations for PD have been identified, it is clear that much more needs to be done to solve the missing heritability mystery. Despite remarkable efforts, as a field, we have failed in terms of diversity and inclusivity. The vast majority of genetic studies in PD have focused on individuals of European ancestry, leading to a gap of knowledge on the existing genetic differences across populations and PD as a whole. As we move forward, shedding light on the genetic architecture contributing to PD in non-European populations is essential, and will provide novel insight into the generalized genetic map of the disease. In this review, we discuss how better representation of understudied ancestral groups in PD genetics research requires addressing and resolving all the challenges that hinder the inclusion of these populations. We further provide an overview of PD genetics in the clinics, covering the current challenges and limitations of genetic testing and counseling. Finally, we describe the impact of worldwide collaborative initiatives in the field, shaping the future of the new era of PD genetics as we advance in our understanding of the genetic architecture of PD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1681
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Diversity
  • Genetic testing
  • Genetics
  • Genetics counselling
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Post-GWAS era


Dive into the research topics of 'Mapping the diverse and inclusive future of parkinson’s disease genetics and its widespread impact'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this