Lupus: the new epidemic

M. F. Ugarte-Gil, L. A. González, G. S. Alarcón

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Is systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is occurring more frequently now than in decades past? Despite improvements in the identification of patients with SLE, the development of new classification criteria, and the recognition of several biomarkers used alone or in combination, the diagnosis of SLE is still a challenge for clinicians, in particular early in the course of the disease, which makes the recognition of secular trends difficult to ascertain. Lacking a uniform definition of preclinical lupus or incomplete lupus, it is difficult to predict accurately which patients would go on to develop SLE. We will briefly review the classification criteria, early or preclinical SLE, the epidemiology of SLE, antinuclear antibodies-negative SLE, and biomarkers of the disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1031-1050
Number of pages20
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2019


  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • biomarkers
  • classification criteria
  • epidemiology
  • incidence
  • lupus incomplete
  • prevalence
  • seronegative SLE


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