AIM: To evaluate the influence of different enamel etching times on the bond strength of two self-adhesive resin cements (RCs) with and without thermocycling (TMC). METHODS: One hundred twenty bovine teeth were used. Blocks of enamel (8×4×2mm) were obtained, polished, and randomly divided into two groups, according to the RC used: MaxCem Elite or RelyX U200. Groups were subdivided into four groups (n=16), according to the etching time: Control (0 seconds), 5 seconds, 10 seconds, and 20 seconds. Three RC cylinders (1-mm diameter) were built on each enamel block. The specimens were submitted to two storage conditions: 24 hours in distilled water or TMC (5000 cycles/5°C-55°C). Afterward, the specimens were submitted to the shear bond strength (SBS) test. The failure modes and adhesive interfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Data were analyzed with three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test (α=0.05). RESULTS: Etching increased the SBS for both the RCs,especially forthe groups etched for 5 and 10 seconds. TMC affected negatively the SBS of the control groups (p<0.05). No resin tags were observed in control groups, and the formation of tags was time dependent. CONCLUSION: The 10 seconds etching time was more effective in increasing the enamel-resin bond strength. TMC negatively affected bond strength in specimens without acid etching.