Background. Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) has emerged as a cause of bacteremia in African children and HIV-infected adults, which is associated with high mortality. Epidemiological data and burden of iNTS infections in resource-constrained settings are needed to better define preventive and curative strategies. Methods. Blood and, if appropriate, cerebrospinal fluid, were collected from children <15 years of age with fever or severe disease admitted to the Manhiça District Hospital and cultured for NTS; isolates were then characterized. Results. From January 2001 to December 2014, 41 668 of the 51 878 admitted children had a blood culture performed. Invasive NTS was isolated from 670 (1.6%) specimens collected from 41 668 patients; 69 (10.3% died). Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi or Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Paratyphi A or C were only isolated in 14 (0.03%) patients. A total of 460 of 620 (74.2%) NTS isolates serotyped were Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (45% [116/258] of which were multilocus sequence type 313). The incidence of iNTS was 61.8 (95% confidence interval, 55.4-68.9) cases per 100 000 child-years, being highest among infants (217.7 cases/100 000 child-years). The incidence of iNTS declined significantly (P <. 0001) over time, but the case fatality ratio remained constant at approximately 10%. Antimicrobial resistance of iNTS against most available antimicrobials has steadily increased, with a predominance of multidrug-resistant strains. Conclusions. The decreasing but still high incidence of iNTS, its high associated case fatality ratio, and the common detection of multidrug-resistant strains call for a need to improve treatment and prevention strategies for iNTS.
- burden of disease
- invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella