MexAB-OprM and MexEF-OprN are Pseudomonas aeruginosa efflux pumps involved in the development of antibiotic resistance. Several studies developed with laboratory strains or using a few clinical isolates have reported that the regulation system of MexEF-OprN is involved in the final levels of MexAB-OprM expression. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the interplay between MexAB-OprM and MexEF-OprN in 90 out of 190 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates with an efflux pump overexpression phenotype. Regarding oprD, 33% (30/90) of isolates displayed relevant modifications (RM) defined as frameshift or premature stop, both related to carbapenem resistance. On the other hand, 33% of the isolates displayed RM in nalC, nalD or mexR, which were significantly associated with multidrug resistance (MDR), non-susceptibility to carbapenems, OprD alterations and strong biofilm production. Meanwhile, the RM in MexS were associated with presence of pigment (p = 0.004). Otherwise, when all the regulators were analysed together, the association between RM in MexAB-OprM regulators and MDR was only significant (p = 0.039) when mexS was the wild type. These data show the modulatory effect of MexEF-OprN on MexAB-OprM in a clinical population of P. aeruginosa. Further studies may contribute to design of novel molecules acting on this interplay to fight against antimicrobial resistance.