Influence of dentofacial characteristics on the appearance of self-reported bullying: A review

Sisley Antonieta Morales-Salazar, Judith Milagros Monteagudo-Sangama, Luis Ernesto Arriola-Guillén

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Bullying is a social problem that affects children and adolescents in particular. It deteriorates the self-esteem of its victims, decreases their quality of life and generates future psychological problems. The aim of this review was to determine the influence of dentofacial characteristics on the appearance of self-reported bullying through a literature review. A systematic search was carried out in the databases of international scientific literature on health sciences, including MEDLINE via PubMed, Scopus, LILACS, and SciELO. Up to October 10, 2020, a total of 348 articles were identified, but only 36 were ultimately selected for the review. Specific keywords in English were used in the search: “dentofacial features”; “soft tissue”; and “malocclusion”. It was found that the appearance of bullying was associated with altered facial profiles, namely the presence of different classes of malocclusion, with class II or class III malocclusion being the most impactful. Altered dentofacial characteristics can make an individual the target of harassment, leading to low quality of life, emotional instability, low self-esteem, and the lack of confidence with regard to dentofacial appearance as well as poor long-term social and academic performance. There is a need to develop preventive measures that would be applied by both parents and authorities, with disseminating information on bullying in schools as well as on adequate oral hygiene and the importance of going to the dentist. Traditional and cybernetic bullying share similarities. While working out strategies against bullying, it is essential to raise awareness among victims and bullies, families, and society, and to determine how bullying is perceived by children and teenagers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)657-661
Number of pages5
JournalDental and medical problems
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2022


  • bullying
  • dentofacial alteration
  • labial incompetence
  • malocclusion
  • self-reported bullying


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