Impact of pathological features of brain metastases in prognosis

Carlos A. Castaneda, Miluska Castillo, Luis A. Bernabe, Joselyn Sanchez, Sandro Casavilca, Pamela García-Corrochano, Jaime Ponce, Maria R. Villa-Robles, Carolina Belmar Lopez, Enrique Orrego

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Aim: To evaluate the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and Ki67 in brain metastasis lesions, and the effect of adding them to variables of graded prognostic assessment score. Patients & methods: Clinicopathological information from 111 medical charts of brain metastasis patients was obtained, and TIL distribution (n = 84), Ki67 index (n = 79) and CD3 TIL (n = 64) were prospectively evaluated. Results: Most frequent TIL pattern was perivascular (67.8%), and median Ki67 and CD3 TIL percents were 30 and 4.8%, respectively. Ki67 ≥15 was associated with shorter survival (p = 0.018) but CD3 TIL was not (p = 0.870). The highest graded prognostic assessment score was not associated with survival (p = 0.648), however, those with low Ki67 and high score was associated with better outcome (p = 0.007). Conclusion: High Ki67 index in brain metastasis carries a worse prognosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)475-485
Number of pages11
JournalBiomarkers in Medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2018


  • brain metastasis
  • infiltrating lymphocytes
  • proliferation index
  • survival


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