Streptococcosis causes great economic losses in intensive culture of tilapia. Vaccination is the most effective and safest way to tackle infectious diseases. Thus, this study sought the more effective and safer antigenic fraction after sonication of Streptococcus agalactiae to elaborate a vaccine against streptococcosis in Nile tilapia. For this, twenty-one days after vaccination with different fractions (soluble and insoluble) of S. agalactiae, the fish were challenged with the homologous strain (LD50). Then, samples were taken at zero, 14, 28, 60 and 90 days post-vaccination (DPV, n = 7). Blood and organs (cranial kidney, spleen and liver) were collected from vaccinated and unvaccinated fish. Finally, insoluble fraction vaccine presented the best effect, resulting in a 100% relative percent of survival (RPS) and without clinical manifestations. In view of the results, it was to evaluate the role of the insoluble fraction of the antigen in the protective immunity against streptococcosis. The results indicate that the spleen might be the main organ in the vaccine response in Nile tilapia due to the great morphological and immunological differences in vaccinated fish, evidenced by the greater of melanomacrophage centers (MMC) and IgM + lymphocytes in relation to the non-vaccinated fish. At 60 DPV, it was observed the peak of the protective immunity related to the maximum concentration of proteins, circulating leukocytes, antibody titers in the serum and tissue changes with greater expression of IgM + and MMC number in the spleen and kidney of Oreochromis niloticus. Vaccination with insoluble fraction of S. agalactiae was safe and provided effective protection against streptococcosis with maximum protective response at 60 DPV.
- Nile tilapia