Hope, resilience and subjective happiness among general population of Paraguay in the post COVID-19 pandemic

Julio Torales, Iván Barrios, Osvaldo Melgarejo, Noelia Ruiz Díaz, Marcelo O’Higgins, Rodrigo Navarro, Diego Amarilla, José Almirón-Santacruz, Israel González-Urbieta, Tomás Caycho-Rodríguez, João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Antonio Ventriglio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Positive mental health includes not only the absence of mental disorders but also the presence of subjective well-being, good coping strategies for life stress, and strategies for adapting to community life. It is well known that the COVID-19 pandemic has challenged mental health in general population worldwide. However, research has not measured protective factors for mental health in the general population after the declared end of pandemic by the World Health Organization. Methods: This observational, cross-sectional study surveyed 591 Paraguayan participants aged ⩾18 years, who were recruited through an online survey. Demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status were collected as well as mental health and validated tools for hope, resilience, subjective happiness were administered. Results: Of the participants, 81.6% were women, 54% were married or in a relationship and 90.7% reported an university education. The main source of stress was economic issues (30.3%). A total of 22.7% had been previously diagnosed with a mental disorder, 22.2% had consulted a mental health professional and 10.8% had consumed prescription drugs. 42.6% reported flourishing, 36.2% reported moderate and 21.2% reported languishing mental health. Conclusions: This large survey has shown that most of participants reported a flourishing mental health with high ratings at hope, resilience, and subjective happiness scales. Also, the main sources of stress were economic issues, not consequently related to the pandemic. This may add evidences to the international debate on the long term effects of the global pandemic and probably suggests that recovery processes have been collectively adopted in Paraguay.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • COVID-19
  • Happiness
  • hope
  • mental disorders
  • mental health
  • resilience


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