Background: Ensuring broad COVID-19 vaccination coverage among migrants is a global public health concern. Thus, our study aimed to assess the factors associated with not receiving the primary series and booster dose of the COVID-19 vaccine among Venezuelan migrants in Peru. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on secondary data analysis of the 2022 Venezuelan Population Residing in Peru Survey. Our population included Venezuelan migrants and refugees over 18 years old living in Peru with complete information for the variables of interest. Two outcome variables were assessed: not receiving the primary series and not receiving the booster dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. Crude and adjusted prevalences were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. Results: A total of 7,727 Venezuelan adults were included in our study, of whom 6,511 completed the primary series. The overall COVID-19 vaccination coverage of the primary series was 84.17%, whilst the coverage of the booster dose was 28.06%. Being younger, uninsured, illegally-staying, and having a low educational level were associated with both outcomes. Conclusion: Several sociodemographic and migration-related variables were associated with both outcomes. Governmental policies prioritizing vaccination among Venezuelan migrants are needed to ensure broad coverage in this vulnerable group.