Manuel F. Ugarte-Gil, Guillermo J. Pons-Estel, Graciela S. Alarcón

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease distributed worldwide that occurs in both genders and across racial/ethnic and age groups; however, higher rates are observed in adults, women, and non-Caucasians. Genetic, environmental, sociodemographic, and methodological issues are responsible for these differences and for the variable course and outcome of the disease. Non-Caucasians may have more severe disease with a higher risk for early mortality and damage accrual. Males also may have a more severe disease; however, a negative impact of male gender on lupus outcomes has not been firmly established. Childhood onset is associated with a more severe disease; however, it is not associated with higher damage or diminished survival. Finally, late-onset lupus is associated with a mild disease but with higher damage accrual and a diminished survival.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSystemic Lupus Erythematosus
Subtitle of host publicationBasic, Applied and Clinical Aspects
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages7
ISBN (Electronic)9780128020098
ISBN (Print)9780128019177
StatePublished - 2016


  • Age
  • Gender
  • Incidence
  • Prevalence
  • Race/ethnicity
  • Survival


Dive into the research topics of 'Epidemiology'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this