Disengaging the COVID-19 Clutch as a Discerning Eye Over the Inflammatory Circuit During SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Mohammed Moustapha Anwar, Ranjit Sah, Sunil Shrestha, Akihiko Ozaki, Namrata Roy, Zareena Fathah, Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and leads to multiorgan dysfunction. Mitochondrial dynamics are fundamental to protect against environmental insults, but they are highly susceptible to viral infections. Defective mitochondria are potential sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Infection with SARS-CoV-2 damages mitochondria, alters autophagy, reduces nitric oxide (NO), and increases both nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (NOX) and ROS. Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibited activated toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD-), leucine-rich repeat (LRR-), pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. The activation of TLRs and NLRP3 by SARS‐CoV‐2 induces interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1β, IL-18, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Herein, we outline the inflammatory circuit of COVID-19 and what occurs behind the scene, the interplay of NOX/ROS and their role in hypoxia and thrombosis, and the important role of ROS scavengers to reduce COVID-19-related inflammation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1875-1894
Number of pages20
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • COVID-19
  • IL
  • Mitochondria
  • NLRP3
  • NOX
  • ROS
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • TLR


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