Biphasic hydroxyapatite and ß-tricalcium phosphate biomaterial behavior in a case series of maxillary sinus augmentation in humans

Allinson Olaechea, Gerardo Mendoza-Azpur, Francisco O´Valle, Miguel Padial-Molina, Natividad Martin-Morales, Pablo Galindo-Moreno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the morphometric components and the histological properties of pristine bone and bone grafted with a biphasic ß-tricalcium phosphate in humans using the maxillary sinus model. Reparative mesenchymal stem cells in the pristine bone and graft were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: For this prospective case series, sinus augmentation was performed using a biphasic ß-tricalcium phosphate. After 6 months of healing, a core of remnant native alveolar bone and grafted bone was collected with a trephine. Histological, histomorphometrical, and immunohistochemical techniques were performed. Radiological analysis through cone beam computerized tomography was also conducted. Results: A total of 10 patients were enrolled in this study. Radiologically, patients showed an average increase of crestal bone of 8.03 ± 1.72 mm. Morphologically, the grafted area was composed by 34.93 ± 14.68% of new mineralized tissue, 9.82 ± 11.42% of remnant biomaterial particles, and 55.23 ± 11.03% non-mineralized tissue. Histologically, we found no differences in the number of osteocytes per mm 2 (p = 0.674), osteoblasts (p = 0.893), and blood vessels (p = 0.894) in the grafted area compared to the pristine bone. Differences were found on the number of osteoclasts (15.57 ± 27.50 vs. 5.37 ± 16.12, p = 0.027). The number of Musashi-1 positive mesenchymal cells (239.61 ± 177.4 vs. 42.11 ± 52.82, p = 0.027) was also significantly higher in the grafted area than in the pristine bone. Conclusion: Biphasic ß-tricalcium phosphate is a suitable biomaterial to be used in the formation of new bone in sinus floor elevation procedures in humans, not only from the histomorphometrical point of view, but also regarding the cellular and vascular quality of the regenerated bone.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)336-343
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Oral Implants Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2019


  • biomaterial
  • biphasic ß-tricalcium phosphate
  • hydroxyapatite
  • implant dentistry
  • maxillary sinus augmentation
  • sinus lift


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