Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the morphometric components and the histological properties of pristine bone and bone grafted with a biphasic ß-tricalcium phosphate in humans using the maxillary sinus model. Reparative mesenchymal stem cells in the pristine bone and graft were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: For this prospective case series, sinus augmentation was performed using a biphasic ß-tricalcium phosphate. After 6 months of healing, a core of remnant native alveolar bone and grafted bone was collected with a trephine. Histological, histomorphometrical, and immunohistochemical techniques were performed. Radiological analysis through cone beam computerized tomography was also conducted. Results: A total of 10 patients were enrolled in this study. Radiologically, patients showed an average increase of crestal bone of 8.03 ± 1.72 mm. Morphologically, the grafted area was composed by 34.93 ± 14.68% of new mineralized tissue, 9.82 ± 11.42% of remnant biomaterial particles, and 55.23 ± 11.03% non-mineralized tissue. Histologically, we found no differences in the number of osteocytes per mm 2 (p = 0.674), osteoblasts (p = 0.893), and blood vessels (p = 0.894) in the grafted area compared to the pristine bone. Differences were found on the number of osteoclasts (15.57 ± 27.50 vs. 5.37 ± 16.12, p = 0.027). The number of Musashi-1 positive mesenchymal cells (239.61 ± 177.4 vs. 42.11 ± 52.82, p = 0.027) was also significantly higher in the grafted area than in the pristine bone. Conclusion: Biphasic ß-tricalcium phosphate is a suitable biomaterial to be used in the formation of new bone in sinus floor elevation procedures in humans, not only from the histomorphometrical point of view, but also regarding the cellular and vascular quality of the regenerated bone.
- biphasic ß-tricalcium phosphate
- implant dentistry
- maxillary sinus augmentation
- sinus lift