Association of mandibular canine impaction and anatomical factors: A multicentre retrospective panoramic study in Latin America

Roger Homero Cornejo-Paz, Yalil Augusto Rodríguez-Cárdenas, Gustavo Armando Ruíz-Mora, Aron Aliaga-Del Castillo, Luis Ernesto Arriola-Guillén

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Introduction: Mandibular canine impaction is infrequent in dental eruption anomalies and treatment is very challenging. The aim of this multicenter retrospective panoramic study in Latin America was to evaluate panoramic radiographic imaging characteristics of mandibular canine impaction (impaction area, mandibular base contact, transmigration, impaction height and sex) and their associations. Material and methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated 212 digital panoramic radiographs from three radiological centres in Tingo Maria (Peru), Bogota and Tunja (Colombia). The study included children of both sexes with impacted mandibular canines. Mandibular alpha angle, contact with mandibular basal bone (MBB), impacted sector according to 10 sectors with an adaptation of the Ericson and Kurol method, presence of transmigration and the impacted height were measured and the relationship among these measures was analyzed. Fisher's exact test, Chi-square and binary logistic regression were used. (P < 0.05). Results: The mandibular canine impaction showed contact with the MBB (32.08%), dental transmigration (36.79%), mainly located at an apical (40.09%) and sub-apical (36.79%) level. Transmigration mainly occurred in sectors 6 (33.30%) and 10 (25.60%) (P < 0.001). It was found that for each year of increase in age, the possibility of contact with the MBB decreased (β = 0.89, P = 0.010), and as the alpha angle increased by one degree the probability of contact with the MBB decreased (β = 0.97, P = 0.001) and the probability of transmigration increased (β = 1.05, P < 0.001). Conclusions: One third of the impacted canines were in contact with the MBB, while another third presented dental transmigration and were mainly located apically and subapically of the incisor roots. These imaging features should be taken into account when planning orthodontic treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100867
JournalInternational Orthodontics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2024


  • Dental impaction
  • Mandibular canines
  • Multicenter trial
  • Orthodontics
  • Panoramic radiographs
  • Transmigration


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