Antibiotic susceptibility among non-clinical Escherichia coli as a marker of antibiotic pressure in Peru (2009–2019): one health approach

Angie K. Castillo, Kathya Espinoza, Antony F. Chaves, Fernando Guibert, Joaquim Ruiz, Maria J. Pons

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Objective: Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing health problem worldwide with serious implications in global health. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobials has resulted in the spread of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in humans, animals and the environment. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance provides important information contributing to understanding dissemination within these environments. These data are often unavailable in low- and middle-income countries, such as Peru. This review aimed to determine the levels of antimicrobial resistance in non-clinical Escherichia coli beyond the clinical setting in Peru. Methods: We searched 2009–2019 literature in PUBMED, Google Scholar and local repositories. Results: Thirty manuscripts including human, food, environmental, livestock, pets and/or wild animals’ samples were found. The analysis showed high resistance levels to a variety of antimicrobial agents, with >90% of resistance for streptomycin and non-extended-spectrum cephalosporin in livestock and food. High levels of rifamycin resistance were also found in non-clinical samples from humans. In pets, resistance levels of 70–>90% were detected for quinolones tetracycline and non-extended spectrum cephalosporins. The results suggest higher levels of antimicrobial resistance in captive than in free-ranging wild-animals. Finally, among environmental samples, 50–70% of resistance to non-extended-spectrum cephalosporin and streptomycin was found. Conclusions: High levels of resistance, especially related to old antibacterial agents, such as streptomycin, 1st and 2nd generation cephalosporins, tetracyclines or first-generation quinolones were detected. Antimicrobial use and control measures are needed with a One Health approach to identify the main drivers of antimicrobial resistance due to interconnected human, animal and environmental habitats.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere10573
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2022


  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Escherichia coli
  • One health


Dive into the research topics of 'Antibiotic susceptibility among non-clinical Escherichia coli as a marker of antibiotic pressure in Peru (2009–2019): one health approach'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this